State Design Pattern in Java: Distributed transition logic

  1. Create a “wrapper” class that models the state machine
  2. The wrapper class contains an array of state concrete objects
  3. The wrapper class contains an index to its “current” state
  4. Client requests are delegated to the current state and “this” is passed
  5. Create a state base class that makes the concrete states interchangeable
  6. The State base class specifies default behavior for all messages
  7. The State derived classes only override the messages they need to
  8. The derived classes “call back to” the wrapper class to change its current
// 1. The "wrapper"
class FSM {
    // 2. States array
    private State[] states  = {new A(), new B(), new C()};

    // 3. Current state
    private int currentState = 0;

    // 4. Delegation and pass the this pointer
    public void on()  {
        states[currentState].on(this);
    }

    public void off() {
        states[currentState].off(this);
    }

    public void ack() {
        states[currentState].ack(this);
    }

    public void changeState(int index) {
        currentState = index;
    }
}

// 5. The State base class
abstract class State {
    // 6. Default behavior
    public void on(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("error");
    }

    public void off(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("error");
    }

    public void ack(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("error");
    }
}

class A extends State {
    public void on(  FSM fsm ) {
        System.out.println("A + on  = C");
        fsm.changeState(2);
    }

    public void off(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("A + off = B");
        fsm.changeState(1);
    }

    public void ack(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("A + ack = A");
        fsm.changeState(0);
    }
}

class B extends State {
    public void on(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("B + on  = A");
        fsm.changeState(0);
    }

    public void off(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("B + off = C");
        fsm.changeState(2);
    }
}

// 7. Only override some messages
class C extends State {
    // 8. "call back to" the wrapper class
    public void on(FSM fsm) {
        System.out.println("C + on  = B");
        fsm.changeState(1);
    }
}

public class StateDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        FSM fsm  = new FSM();
        int[] msgs = {2, 1, 2, 1, 0, 2, 0, 0};
        for (int msg : msgs) {
            if (msg == 0) {
                fsm.on();
            } else if (msg == 1) {
                fsm.off();
            } else if (msg == 2) {
                fsm.ack();
            }
        }
    }
}

Output

A + ack = A
A + off = B
error
B + off = C
C + on  = B
error
B + on  = A
A + on  = C

Code examples