Replace Magic Number with Symbolic Constant

You have a literal number with a particular meaning.

Create a constant, name it after the meaning, and replace the number with it.

    double potentialEnergy(double mass, double height) {
        return mass * 9.81 * height;
    double potentialEnergy(double mass, double height) {
        return mass * GRAVITATIONAL_CONSTANT * height;
    static final double GRAVITATIONAL_CONSTANT = 9.81;


Magic numbers are one of oldest ills in computing. They are numbers with special values that usually are not obvious. Magic numbers are really nasty when you need to reference the same logical number in more than one place. If the numbers might ever change, making the change is a nightmare. Even if you don't make a change, you have the difficulty of figuring out what is going on.

Many languages allow you to declare a constant. There is no cost in performance and there is a great improvement in readability.

Before you do this refactoring, you should always look for an alternative. Look at how the magic number is used. Often you can find a better way to use it. If the magic number is a type code, consider Replace Type Code with Class. If the magic number is the length of an array, use anArray.length instead when you are looping through the array.


  • Declare a constant and set it to the value of the magic number.
  • Find all occurrences of the magic number.
  • See whether the magic number matches the usage of the constant; if it does, change the magic number to use the constant.
  • Compile.
  • When all magic numbers are changed, compile and test. At this point all should work as if nothing has been changed.
    A good test is to see whether you can change the constant easily. This may mean altering some expected results to match the new value. This isn't always possible, but it is a good trick when it works.