Parameterize Method

Several methods do similar things but with different values contained in the method body.

Create one method that uses a parameter for the different values.



You may see a couple of methods that do similar things but vary depending on a few values. In this case you can simplify matters by replacing the separate methods with a single method that handles the variations by parameters. Such a change removes duplicate code and increases flexibility, because you can deal with other variations by adding parameters.


  • Create a parameterized method that can be substituted for each repetitive method.
  • Compile.
  • Replace one old method with a call to the new method.
  • Compile and test.
  • Repeat for all the methods, testing after each one.

You may find that you cannot do this for the whole method, but you can for a fragment of a method. In this case first extract the fragment into a method, then parameterize that method.


The simplest case is methods along the following lines:

  class Employee {
    void tenPercentRaise () {
        salary *= 1.1;

    void fivePercentRaise () {
        salary *= 1.05;

which can be replaced with

  void raise (double factor) {
    salary *= (1 + factor);

Of course that is so simple that anyone would spot it.

A less obvious case is as follows:

    protected Dollars baseCharge() {
        double result = Math.min(lastUsage(),100) * 0.03;
        if (lastUsage() > 100) {
            result += (Math.min (lastUsage(),200) - 100) * 0.05;
        if (lastUsage() > 200) {
            result += (lastUsage() - 200) * 0.07;
        return new Dollars (result);

this can be replaced with

    protected Dollars baseCharge() {
        double result = usageInRange(0, 100) * 0.03;
        result += usageInRange (100,200) * 0.05;
        result += usageInRange (200, Integer.MAX_VALUE) * 0.07;
        return new Dollars (result);

    protected int usageInRange(int start, int end) {
        if (lastUsage() > start) return Math.min(lastUsage(),end) - start;
        else return 0;

The trick is to spot code that is repetitive on the basis of a few values that can be passed in as parameters.