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Singleton Design Pattern in PHP

In the singleton pattern a class can distribute one instance of itself to other classes.

<?php

/**
 * Singleton classes
 */
class BookSingleton {
    private $author = 'Gamma, Helm, Johnson, and Vlissides';
    private $title  = 'Design Patterns';
    private static $book = NULL;
    private static $isLoanedOut = FALSE;

    private function __construct() {
    }

    static function borrowBook() {
      if (FALSE == self::$isLoanedOut) {
        if (NULL == self::$book) {
           self::$book = new BookSingleton();
        }
        self::$isLoanedOut = TRUE;
        return self::$book;
      } else {
        return NULL;
      }
    }

    function returnBook(BookSingleton $bookReturned) {
        self::$isLoanedOut = FALSE;
    }

    function getAuthor() {return $this->author;}

    function getTitle() {return $this->title;}

    function getAuthorAndTitle() {
      return $this->getTitle() . ' by ' . $this->getAuthor();
    }
  }
 
class BookBorrower {
    private $borrowedBook;
    private $haveBook = FALSE;

    function __construct() {
    }

    function getAuthorAndTitle() {
      if (TRUE == $this->haveBook) {
        return $this->borrowedBook->getAuthorAndTitle();
      } else {
        return "I don't have the book";
      }
    }

    function borrowBook() {
      $this->borrowedBook = BookSingleton::borrowBook();
      if ($this->borrowedBook == NULL) {
        $this->haveBook = FALSE;
      } else {
        $this->haveBook = TRUE;
      }
    }

    function returnBook() {
      $this->borrowedBook->returnBook($this->borrowedBook);
    }
  }
 
/**
 * Initialization
 */

  writeln('BEGIN TESTING SINGLETON PATTERN');
  writeln('');

  $bookBorrower1 = new BookBorrower();
  $bookBorrower2 = new BookBorrower();

  $bookBorrower1->borrowBook();
  writeln('BookBorrower1 asked to borrow the book');
  writeln('BookBorrower1 Author and Title: ');
  writeln($bookBorrower1->getAuthorAndTitle());
  writeln('');

  $bookBorrower2->borrowBook();
  writeln('BookBorrower2 asked to borrow the book');
  writeln('BookBorrower2 Author and Title: ');
  writeln($bookBorrower2->getAuthorAndTitle());
  writeln('');

  $bookBorrower1->returnBook();
  writeln('BookBorrower1 returned the book');
  writeln('');

  $bookBorrower2->borrowBook();
  writeln('BookBorrower2 Author and Title: ');
  writeln($bookBorrower1->getAuthorAndTitle());
  writeln('');

  writeln('END TESTING SINGLETON PATTERN');

  function writeln($line_in) {
    echo $line_in.'<br/>';
  }
?>

Output

BEGIN TESTING SINGLETON PATTERN


BookBorrower1 asked to borrow the book
BookBorrower1 Author and Title: 
Design Patterns by Gamma, Helm, Johnson, and Vlissides


BookBorrower2 asked to borrow the book
BookBorrower2 Author and Title: 
I don't have the book


BookBorrower1 returned the book


BookBorrower2 Author and Title: 
Design Patterns by Gamma, Helm, Johnson, and Vlissides


END TESTING SINGLETON PATTERN

Code examples

More info, diagrams and examples of the Singleton design pattern you can find on our new partner resource Refactoring.Guru.