Data Clumps

Data items tend to be like children; they enjoy hanging around in groups together. Often you'll see the same three or four data items together in lots of places: fields in a couple of classes, parameters in many method signatures. Bunches of data that hang around together really ought to be made into their own object. The first step is to look for where the clumps appear as fields. Use Extract Class on the fields to turn the clumps into an object. Then turn your attention to method signatures using Introduce Parameter Object or Preserve Whole Object to slim them down. The immediate benefit is that you can shrink a lot of parameter lists and simplify method calling. Don't worry about data clumps that use only some of the fields of the new object. As long as you are replacing two or more fields with the new object, you'll come out ahead.

A good test is to consider deleting one of the data values: if you did this, would the others make any sense? If they don't, it's a sure sign that you have an object that's dying to be born.

Reducing field lists and parameter lists will certainly remove a few bad smells, but once you have the objects, you get the opportunity to make a nice perfume. You can now look for cases of feature envy, which will suggest behavior that can be moved into your new classes. Before long these classes will be productive members of society.